In 1992, the EPA officially defined “environmental justice” and established an office devoted to it. In 1994, President Bill Clinton issued an executive order calling on all government agencies to consider environmental justice in their decisions.
When was the term environmental justice first used?
The environmental justice movement emerged in the late 1980s when a blistering report exposed massive disparities in the burden of environmental degradation and pollution facing minority and low-income communities.
Who invented the term environmental justice?
The term “environmental racism” grew out of this grassroots activism. In 1982, Dr. Benjamin Chavis, then director of the United Church of Christ’s Commission for Racial Justice (CRJ) coined the term in response to an incident in Warren County, North Carolina.
Where did the environmental justice movement start?
The initial environmental justice spark sprang from a Warren County, North Carolina, protest. In 1982, a small, predominately African-American community was designated to host a hazardous waste landfill. This landfill would accept PCB-contaminated soil that resulted from illegal dumping of toxic waste along roadways.
When did the EPA define environmental justice?
EPA Plan EJ 2014
EPA defines “environmental justice” as the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.
What is the history of environmental justice?
The environmental justice movement was started by individuals, primarily people of color, who sought to address the inequity of environmental protection in their communities. … The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s sounded the alarm about the public health dangers for their families, their communities and themselves.
What is the history of climate justice?
In 2009, the Climate Justice Action Network was formed during the run-up to the Copenhagen Summit. It proposed civil disobedience and direct action during the summit, and many climate activists used the slogan ‘system change not climate change’.
What is meant by the term environmental justice?
Environmental justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income, with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.
What caused environmental injustice?
Causes of Environmental Injustice
Racism/racial discrimination. Alienating low-income community members. Failing to represent all groups and government. Industrialization.
How did an environmental justice movement emerge in the late twentieth century?
The environmental justice movement has existed for more than two decades, reaching an apex in the 1990’s. The movement emerged from an increased awareness of the disproportionately high impacts of environmental pollution on economically and politically disadvantaged communities.
What is the difference between environmental justice and ecological justice?
We term these aspects of justice: environmental justice and ecological justice. … As a conse- quence, questions of environmental justice could be resolved without solving an environmental problem. Ecological justice, on the other hand, must address both environmental justice and the ecological quality of our practices.
Who is responsible for environmental justice?
The executive order established an Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice (EJ IWG) chaired by the EPA Administrator and comprised of the heads of 11 departments or agencies and several White House offices. The EJ IWG now includes 17 agencies and meets on a monthly basis to continue collaborative efforts.